英語論文を書こう ~英語のpitfall~


The definite article “the” is not used with nouns that are followed by a numeral or letter.
The definite article “the” is used to refer to somebody or something that is the only, normal, or obvious one of their kind (e.g., The prime minister of Australia). However, in phrases such as “complex 1” and “group C,” the letter or number appearing after the noun makes the noun unique, thus eliminating the need for an article.
Incorrect: The winner of this leg of the competition is the Team B.
Correct: The winner of this leg of the competition is Team B.

定冠詞 “the” は、数字または文字が後に続く名詞では使用されない

Adult male humans should be referred to as “men” and adult female humans, as “women.” In academic writing, “males” and “females” may refer to individuals of any species or of any age. Hence, being precise is preferred and necessary in academic writing.
Furthermore, individuals who have not yet attained adulthood should be referred to as “boys” and “girls.”
Additionally, if a group contains both children and adults, they are collectively described using the adult-appropriate terms.

成人していない人は “boys” “girls”と表記する
“males” や “females” はあらゆる種や年代を包括する概念のため、より正確にすべき

The addition of appropriate introductory phrases helps substantially improve the flow of information by clarifying the correlation between consecutive sentences, e.g., “Additionally”/”Moreover”/”Furthermore” for a sentence providing information that supports the information stated in the preceding sentence, “Conversely”/“However” for a sentence describing information that is contrary, “Therefore”/“Thus” for a sentence describing information that is a result of the information/events decribed in its preceding sentence, and “Thereafter”/”Subsequent(ly)” for a sentence describing events that immediately follow those described in the preceding sentence.

“Additional”/”Moreover”/”Furthermore “は前の文で述べられた情報をサポートする情報を提供する文
“Conversely”/”However “は反対の情報を記述する文
“Therefore”/”Thus “はその前の文で説明した情報/事象の結果である情報を記述する文

In scientific writing, abbreviations need to be defined on their first usage as they can differ between fields, and they should be used throughout the document for consistency.
Please define abbreviations at first mention, and use the abbreviation thereafter. As the Abstract, main text, tables, and figure legends are expected to be able to stand on their own, each abbreviation should be defined at its first use in each of these.
An exception is when certain abbreviations are accepted as standard abbreviations by a journal, and do not have to be defined at their first use.
Also, a term that is only used once in any of these is typically not abbreviated.
Using abbreviations incorrectly can confuse readers and decrease comprehension of the text.


Please note that “in recent years” is always used in conjunction with the present perfect tense, denoting a gradual development. Since you are describving the present-day scenario, it was somewhat illogical here.

in recent yearsは現在完了形と用いられる

As “suggest” already denotes a possible occurrence, the word “may” was unnecessary here.


I have deleted this as it confers tautology to the text; possible indicates likelihood just like may.


Please note that facts and findings established in previous studies are typically described using the present tense. This helps readers to infer that these are not hypotheses being stated by the current study’s authors.
However, when these findings are being described as the products of previous research, then they should be described in the past tense, as they are now being conveyed as the products of past events, and not as currently established facts, e.g., “In the study by ABC et al.,” “In a previous study, ABC occurred…,” or “XYZ et al. reported that…” This is also to aid in readability, so that readers do not misinterpret the sentence as implying that this past research is currently ongoing.


In academic writing, casual words and phrases are best avoided, as they lend an informal tone. For instance, the verb “about,” “roughly,” or “around” when used in relation to rough values or estimations can be replaced with “approximately” because the latter is more formal and preferred in academic literature.

”約”としてabout, aroundなどを使いがちであるが、フォーマルにapproximatelyを用いる

A period is used to signify the end of a complete sentence. Since titles or headings are usually not complete sentences, they do not take the period at the end.


the two titles are not successive sentences, and are intended to be read independantly of each other, this title should not cointain the word “also” in reference to the figure legend.


due toは〜のせいで、と言う意味なので悪いものが来るのに対し、because ofはポジティブかネガティブかを問わず使うことが出来るものです
そのため、不用意にdue toを使わないようにしましょう

There are/is も冗長になるのでなるべく使わない。示す先が明確な名詞で始める




A dummy subject doesn’t convey any specific meaning other than simply serving as a grammatical filler. Sentences with a dummy subject most often begin with It or There.

For example,

Original: There were many people standing in line.

Revision: Many people were standing in line.




Tip: Repeated noun error refers to the unnecessary repetition of the same noun in a series or list

For example,
Original: There were 12 and 18 members in the first group and second group, respectively.
Revision: There were 12 and 18 members in the first and second groups, respectively.


Tip: A comparative sentence is unclear if the structure is unbalanced. Use a balanced structure when writing such a sentence. One way to do this is by adding the missing preposition, sometimes preceded by a pronoun (that/those).

For example,

Original: The variation intensity for sample A is higher than sample B.

Revised: The variation intensity for sample A is higher than that for sample B.

not includedをexcludedにするなど、否定形の単語があることが多いため言い換えられないか考えよう


The word ‘about’ is commonly used when rough estimations are made. I would suggest using the word ‘approximately’ with numerical values, as it indicates that it is very close to the actual value.

as per, according toはすでに存在してる文書に依拠して、というニュアンス


Terms relating to imaging procedures and the resulting image or finding should not be used interchangeably. One should clearly distinguish between the terms “X-ray,” “radiography,” and “radiogram/radiograph.” For example, X-rays are waves of energy that a patient is exposed to, radiography is the procedure, and a radiogram/radiograph is the resultant image.

診断するのは疾患のみ、病因や症状に対しては診断すると言わず、recognize, identifyを用いる。

The term “diagnose” refers specifically to diseases, not their etiology or symptoms, like ptosis below. Those can be “recognized” or “identified”


The symptomatology is the group of symptoms, so it can be partial, while single symptoms cannot be “partial”. They could be “mild,” or you can say that a patient presents only “a part of the symptoms” or “some symptoms”



The researchers have conducted a study on the new treatment method. 〇
A study on the new treatment method is conducted by the researchers. ×

不定冠詞であるa 名詞から始まる文の違和感が強い事に気付くかと思います



In academic writing, numbers should be written in numerical or word format according to specified standards, as explained below.
Generally, numerals are used in the following cases: for numbers 10 and above (e.g., 12 of the subjects); for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (e.g., 2 of 16 responses); for numbers representing time, dates, and age (e.g., 3 years ago, 2 h 15 min); for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table (e.g., Table 3, Group 3, page 32). Use words for numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements (e.g., eight items, nine pages) and for numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading (e.g., Forty-eight percent responded).


In contrast, here the case is a specific one of a specific patient, not any case, so it needs “the”


When you introduce a concept for the first time, in generic terms, you should use the indefinite article “a/an”. Afterward, you use “the” because the concept is known.

This is the ~の流れはアカデミックの世界においては不自然になります。単独で用いるのではなくThis ~ isの方が自然で分かりやすい表現になります。

Modified for a better flow. Also, in academic writing, generic pronouns like “this” alone are preferably avoided, as it may not be clear what they are referring to, and they sound informal

前置詞は、名詞や名詞句が文の残りの部分とどのように関係しているかを示す機能語です。前置詞には、in、on、after、since など、時間的・空間的な関係を表すものもありますが、より抽象的な関係を表す場合もあり、周囲の単語によって最適な前置詞が異なる場合があります。これらは「従属前置詞」と呼ばれるもので、明確なパターンがあるわけではありません。

Prepositions are function words that indicate how a noun or noun phrase relates to the rest of the sentence. Some prepositions, such as in, on, after, or since, express temporal or spatial relationships, in other cases, the relationship is more abstract, and the best preposition to use may depend on the words around it. These are “dependent prepositions” and do not follow any clear pattern.
Prepositions are carefully chosen because sometimes, changing a preposition can completely change the phrase’s meaning. A good dictionary will guide which prepositions to use with which words. Consider the examples below:

Incorrect: The library is in the north side of the quad.
Correct: The library is on the north side of the quad.

Incorrect: Timmy’s dad ran alongside of the bike.
Correct: Timmy’s dad ran alongside the bike.

Incorrect: I am waiting your reply.
Correct: I am waiting for your reply.

不定詞が続くべき動詞もあれば、前置詞句が必要な動詞もあることに留意してください。toは前置詞として働くこともありますが、to goのようなto不定詞の一部として働くこともあります。

Kindly note that an infinitive should follow some verbs, while others require a prepositional phrase. The word to sometimes acts as a preposition, but it can also act as part of a to-infinitive verb, such as to go.

For example:

Incorrect: He insisted to leave early.
Correct: He insisted on leaving early.

Incorrect: An internet connection can enable you for learning anything you want.
Correct: An internet connection can enable you to learn anything you want.


 Distortion product otoacoustic emissionsは歪成分耳音響放射検査としてDPOAEとして日本では使用するが、本来はDPOAEsという表記が適切

 Distortion product otoacoustic emissions were…


Kindly note that words and phrases such as basically, actually, and for all intents and purposes are often considered filler phrases. They make sentences wordy without contributing any important information. Avoiding empty filler words and phrases will make your writing more precise.
For example:
Wordy: Basically, they lost because they didn’t bother to practice.
Concise: They lost because they didn’t bother to practice.


Please note that I have replaced the vague pronoun this with This study’s findings to clearly refer back to the previous epidemiological study mentioned in the preceding sentence. This modification helps to provide a clearer and more specific antecedent for the pronoun, ensuring that the reference is unambiguous and understandable to the reader.


firstly → first
exist: 日本語は名詞主導の言語なので,「...(名詞)が存在する」という表現が多い.しかし,この表現は動詞主導の言語である英語では多くの場合にはまず使えない.特に「…という現象が存在する」とは全く言えない.動詞主導の英語ではoccurなどを使う(単純な置き換えではダメ)のが良さそうである.
there is: 上と同じく there is variability などとはできない.

furthermore =「そして」(前の話題の上にさらに、という含蓄だが、必ずしも繋がっているとは限らない)
moreover = 全体がシリーズであるという含蓄が furthermore よりも強い「重ねて」
in addition (to + 名詞)=「加えて」
what is more =コンマつきで主文の前にくるのが一番普通な「その上」